Risk Assessment during Covid-19 and Learning from Home: Evidence from University Students in Indonesia

Main Article Content

Herman Rahadian Soetisna
Ari Widyanti
Airin Syafira
Dwita Astari Pujiartati


COVID-19, Learning from home, Psychosocial, Physical, Mental


COVID-19 pandemic has become an international concern. Policies to prevent the spread of disease, such as learning from home, are applied to university students. The present study examines the risk assessment in relation to physical, mental, and psychosocial condition of Indonesian students toward COVID-19 and learning from home. This study involves 838 Indonesian students. A questionnaire consisting of demographic data and constructs from a comprehensive literature study regarding COVID-19 related issues and learning from home issues was developed. Most Indonesian student respondents have a good knowledge of COVID-19 and have received accurate information from the government. The anxiety level during COVID-19 is mild. In relation to physical condition, most students reported musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck, shoulder, and back areas. The respondents conduct preventive behavior against COVID-19 spread, with lack of physical exercise. In relation to mental and psychosocial condition. In relation to mental and psychosocial condition, respondents report moderate mental workload and proper social support from lecturers and friends. In conclusion, most Indonesian university students have a good knowledge and proper attitudes toward COVID-19 and learning from home, which are important in combating and passing through the pandemic.


Download data is not yet available.


[1]       World Health Organization (WHO). 2020. Mental Health and Psychosocial Considerations During COVID-19 Outbreak. Available: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/ 10665/331490.

[2]       M. Nicola, Z. Alsafi, C. Sohrabi, A. Kerwan, A. Al-Jabir, C. Iosifidis, M. Agha, and R. Agha, “The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review”, International journal of surgery, Vol. 78, pp. 185–193, 2020.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.04.018

[3]       E.Pranita, “342 Tenaga Medis Meninggal karena Covid-19, IDI: Bukan Hoaks dan Konspirasi”, 2020. Available: https://www.kompas.com/sains/read/2020/12/05/124000123/

[4]       M. R. Hayllar, “Governance and Community Engagement in Managing SARS in Hong Kong”, Asian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 15(1), pp. 39-67, 2007.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02185370701315582.

[5]       J. P. A. Ioannidis, “Coronavirus disease 2019: The harms of exaggerated information and non‐evidence‐based measures”, European Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 50(4):e13222, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/eci.13222

[6]       D. Hu, X. Lou, Z. Xu, N. Meng, Q. Xie, M. Zhang, Y. Zou, J. Lu, G. Su and F. Wang, “More effective strategies are required to strengthen public awareness of COVID-19: Evidence from Google Trends”, Journal of Global Health, Vol. 10(1):011003, 2020. https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.10.0101003

[7]       S. K. Brooks, R. K. Webster, L. E. Smith, L. Woodland, S. Wessely, N. Greenberg and G. J. Rubin, “The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence”, The Lancet, Vol. 395, pp. 912-920, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8

[8]       A. Bick, A. Blandin and K. Mertens, “Work from Home after the Covid-19 Outbreak” CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP15000, 2020. https://doi.org/10.24149/wp2017r2

[9]       UNESCO, ”Coronavirus Covid-19 And Higher Education: Impact and Recommendations”, 2020. [online].  Available: https://www.iesalc.unesco.org/en/2020/03/09/coronavirus-covid-19-and-higher-education-impact-and-recommendations/

[10]    O. B. Adedoyin and E. Soykan, “Covid-19 pandemic and online learning: the challenges and opportunities”, Interactive Learning Environments, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1813180

[11]    F. Martin, K. Budhrani, and C.Wang, “Examining Faculty Perception of Their Readiness to Teach Online”, Online Learning Journal, Vol. 23(3), pp. 97-119, 2019. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v23i3.1555

[12]    N. Hens, G. M. Ayele, N. Goeyvaerts, M. Aerts, J. Mossong, J. W Edmunds, and P. Beutels, “Estimating the impact of school closure on social mixing behaviour and the transmission of close contact infections in eight European countries”, BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 9, pp.187-198, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-9-187

[13]    P. Sahu P, “Closure of Universities Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Impact on Education and Mental Health of Students and Academic Staff”, Cureus Vol 12(4): e7541, 2020. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7541

[14]    Y. Pigaiani, L. Zoccante, A. Zocca, A. Arzenton, M. Menegolli, S. Fadel, M. Ruggeri and M. Colizzi, “Adolescent Lifestyle Behaviors, Coping Strategies and Subjective Wellbeing during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Online Student Survey”, Healthcare, Vol. 8(4):472, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040472

[15]    R. O'Connor, K. Wetherall, S. Cleare, H. McClelland, A. Melson, C. Niedzwiedz and K. Robb, ” Mental health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: Longitudinal analyses of adults in the UK COVID-19 Mental Health & Wellbeing study”, The British Journal of Psychiatry, 1-8, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2020.212

[16]    The President and Fellows of Harvard College, “Remote Work Ergonomics”, The President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2021. [online]. Available: https://www.ehs.harvard.edu/sites/default/files/remote_work_ergonomics_fact_sheet.pdf

[17]    University of Wiscosin Madison, “Ergonomics For Telecommuters”, 2020. [online]. Available: https://www.uhs.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/ Remote-Workspace-Ergonomics-3-18-20.pdf

[18]    H. J. Larson, “The biggest pandemic risk? Viral misinformation”, Nature, Vol. 562(7726), pp. 309, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-07034-4

[19]    R. Rodríguez-Rey, H. Garrido-Hernansaiz and S. Collado, “Psychological impact and associated factors during the initial stage of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic among the general population in Spain”, Frontiers in psychology, Vol.11, 1540, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01540

[20]    S. Khan, R. Siddique, H. Li, A. Ali, M. A. Shereen, N. Bashir, M. Xue, “ Impact of coronavirus outbreak on psychological health”, Journal of Global Health, Vol. 10(1): 010331, 2020. https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.10.010331

[21]    Indriani, “Kominfo: Hingga Juni terdapat 850 hoaks terkait COVID-19, 2020. [online] Available: https://kominfo.go.id/content/detail/27755/kominfo-hingga-juni-terdapat-850-hoaks-terkait-covid-19.

[22]    S. R. Quah and L. Hin-Peng, “Crisis prevention and management during SARS outbreak, Singapore”, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(2), pp. 364-368, 2004. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1002.030418

[23]    T. W. Wong, Y. Gao and W. W. S. Tam, “ Anxiety among university students during the SARS epidemic in Hong Kong”, Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 23(1), pp. 31–35, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1116

[24]    S. S. Coughlin, “Anxiety and depression: linkages with viral diseases”, Public health reviews, 34(2), 7, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391675

[25]    Y. Bao, Y. Sun, S. Meng, J.  Shi and L Lu, “2019-nCoV epidemic: address mental health care to empower society”, The Lancet, 395, pp. 37–38, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30309-3

[26]    B. Pfefferbaum, C. S. North, “Mental Health And The Covid-19 Pandemic”, The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 383, pp. 510-512, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2008017

[27]    K. Woodward, “Psychosocial Studies: An Introduction, New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 3–4, 7–8, 2015. ISBN: 978-1-315-86782-3.

[28]    X. Chi, B. Becker, Q. Yu, P. Willeit, C. Jiao, L. Huang, M. Solmi, “Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of mental health outcomes among chinese college students during the coronavirus disease (covid-19) pandemic”, Frontiers in psychiatry, 11: 803, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00803

[29]    A. Johnson, A. Widyanti, “Cultural influence on the measurement of subjective mental workload”,  Ergonomics, 54(6), pp. 509–518, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2011.570459

[30]    Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, “General questions: COVID-19 Prevention and Control, 2020. [online], Available:  http://www.chinacdc.cn/en/ COVID19/202002/

[31]    W.W. Zung, ”A rating instrument for anxiety disorders”, Psychosomatics”, Vol. 12(6), pp. 371–379, 1971. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0033-3182(71)71479-0

[32]    R. L. Spitzer, K. Kroenke, J, B, W. Williams, B. Lowe B, “A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder”, Arch Intern Med, Vol. 166(10):1092-7, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092

[33]    I. Kuorinka, B. Jonsson, A. Kilbom, H. Vinterberg, F. Biering-Sørensen, G Andersson and K Jørgensen, “Standardised Nordic Ques­tion­nair­es for the Analysis of Musculoskeletal Symptoms”, Appl Ergon, Vol.18, pp.233-237, 1987. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-6870(87)90010-X

[34]    World Health Organization, “Global recommendations on physical activity for health, 2011. [online]. Available: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241599979.

[35]    R. Karasek, C. Brisson, N., Kawakami, I. Houtman, P. Bongers and B. Amick, “The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ): An instrument for internationally comparative assessment of psychosocial job characteristic,” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vo. 3(4), pp. 322-355, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.3.4.322

[36]    G. Notelaers, H. De Witte, M. Van Veldhoven, J. K. Vermunt, “Construction and validation of the short inventory to monitor psychosocial hazard”, Medecine du travail & ergonomie. Vol. 44, 2007.

[37]    A. O. Obembe, O. E. Johnson, T. O. Tanimowo, A. T. Onigbinde, A. A. Emechete, “Musculoskeletal Pain Among Undergraduate Laptop Users in a Nigerian University”, Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, Vol. 26(4), pp. 389-395, 2013. https://doi.org/10.3233/BMR-130397

[38]    K. Bubric, and A. Hedge, “Differential Patterns of Laptop Use and Associated Musculoskeletal Discomfort in Male and Female College Students”, Work, Vol. 55(3): pp. 663-671, 2016. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-162419

[39]    M. A. Arshad, M. Z. Shamsudin and M. J. A. Mustafa, ”Laptop Use and Upper Extremities Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Higher Learning Students: Ergonomic and Musculoskeletal”, MAEH Journal of Environmental Health, Vol. 1(1), pp. 1-4, 2020. [online]. Available: https://maeh4u.org.my/journal/index.php/maeh/article/view/17.

[40]    S. Kawano, M. Kakehashi, “Substantial impact of school closure on the transmission dynamics during the pandemic flu H1N1-2009 in Oita, Japan” PLoS ONE, Vol. 10(12): e0144839, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144839

[41]    G. De Luca, K. V. Kerckhove, P. Coletti, C. Poletto, N. Bossuyt, N. Hens and V. Colizza, “The impact of regular school closure on seasonal influenza epidemics: a data-driven spatial transmission model for Belgium,”  BMC Infectious Disease, 18(1):29, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2934-3

[42]    C. C. Wheeler, L. M. Erhart, M. L. Jehn, “Effect of school closure on the incidence of influenzaamong school-age children in Arizona”, Public Health Reports, Vol. 125(6): pp. 851-859, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1177/003335491012500612

[43]    J. B. Hurlbut, “A science that knows no country: Pandemic preparedness, global risk, sovereign science”, Big Data & Society, Vol. 4(2), pp. 1–14, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1177/2053951717742417

[44]    B. J. Cowling and A. E. Aiello, “Public Health Measures to Slow Community Spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019”, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 221(11), pp. 1749-1751, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa123

[45]    L. L. Y. Chan, A. Y. L. Wong, M. H. Wang, K. Cheung, D. Samartzis, “The prevalence of neck pain and associated risk factors among undergraduate students: A large-scale cross-sectional study”, Int’l Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Vol.76, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2020.102934

[46]    S. J. Joseph, S. Sg. T.  Shoib and S. S. Bhandari, “Psychological concerns and musculoskeletal pain amidst the COVID-19 lockdown”, Open journal of psychiatry & allied sciences, 11(2), pp. 137–139, 2020. https://doi.org/10.5958/2394-2061.2020.00026.9

[47]    R. Leirós-Rodríguez, Ó. Rodríguez-Nogueira, A. Pinto-Carral, M. J. Álvarez-Álvarez, M. A. Galán-Martín, F. Montero-Cuadrado, J. A. Benítez-Andrades, “ Musculoskeletal Pain and Non-Classroom Teaching in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of the Impact on Students from Two Spanish Universities”,  Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol. 9(12):4053. 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124053

[48]    B. Offir, Y. Lev, R. Bezalel, “Surface and deep learning processes in distance education: Synchronous versus asynchronous systems”, Computers & Education, Vol. 51(3), pp. 1172–1183, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2007.10.009

[49]    A. Stewart , D. B. Harlow and K. DeBacco, “Students’experience of synchronous learning in distributed environments”, Distance Education, Vol. 32(3), pp. 357-381, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2011.610289

[50]    A. Widyanti, S. Hasudungan and J. Park, “e-Learning readiness and perceived learning workload among students in an Indonesian university”, Knowledge Management & E-Learning, Vol.12(1), pp. 18–29, 2020. https://doi.org/10.34105/j.kmel.2020.12.002.

[51]    S. S.Morse, Emerging Viruses, New York: Oxford. University Press, 1993.