Desain Strategi Peningkatan Daya Saing Industri Pengolahan Makanan Ringan Berbasis Klaster di Sumatera Barat

Insannul Kamil, Rika Ampuh Hadiguna, Berry Yuliandra, Aulia Rahman

Abstract

Food processing industries has grown in the region of West Sumatra since a few decades ago. The processing of various types of food recipes from various West Sumatra region comes from inheritance hereditary. Snack is a processed food product that has a special attraction among various types of distinctive food from West Sumatra. Increasing competitiveness is necessary to accelerate the growth of small and medium snacks industries in West Sumatera. Industrial cluster development is one of the strategic and effective approach to achieve that objective. The research aims to design value chain and industrial cluster map model of small and medium snacks industries in West Sumatra. Industrial cluster mapping carried through: defining the value chain, grouping of factors influence level of internal and external factors, factors condition processing, grouping factor conditions into the four elements of SWOT, strategy planning using SWOT Matrix, and creating industrial cluster map of snacks industries in West Sumatra. The results showed that there are 7 internal factors and 6 external factors that can influence competitiveness of small and medium snacks industries in West Sumatra. The value chain of snack industry in West Sumatra includes tuber farmers, traditional market, special suppliers, small and medium snacks industries, and consumers. The study also generate 10 programs centered on small and medium snacks industries in West Sumatra as core industry.

Keywords:    Industrial cluster, competitiveness, SWOT Matrix, Porter’s Diamond Model

 

Abstrak

Industri pengolahan pangan telah berkembang di wilayah Sumatera Barat sejak beberapa dekade yang lalu. Kondisi ini dibuktikan melalui resep pengolahan berbagai jenis makanan yang menjadi daya tarik ataupun simbol setiap daerah di Sumatera Barat berasal dari warisan secara turun-menurun. Makanan ringan merupakan produk olahan pangan yang memiliki daya tarik tersendiri diantara berbagai jenis makanan khas Sumatera Barat lainnya. Peningkatan daya saing diperlukan untuk mempercepat pertumbuhan Industri Kecil Menengah (IKM) makanan ringan Sumatera Barat. Pembangunan klaster industri merupakan salah satu pendekatan yang strategis dan efektif untuk mencapai hal tersebut. Penelitian bertujuan untuk merancang model rantai nilai dan peta klaster IKM makanan ringan Sumatera Barat. Pemetaan klaster industri dilaksanakan melalui: pendefinisian rantai nilai, pengelompokan tingkat pengaruh faktor internal dan faktor eksternal, pengolahan kondisi faktor, pengelompokan kondisi faktor ke dalam empat elemen SWOT, perancangan strategi menggunakan Matriks SWOT, dan pembuatan peta klaster industri makanan ringan Sumatera Barat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 7 faktor internal dan 6 faktor eksternal yang dapat mempengaruhi peningkatan daya saing IKM makanan ringan Sumatera Barat. Rantai nilai meliputi petani umbi-umbian Sumatera Barat, pasar tradisional, pemasok khusus, IKM makanan ringan Sumatera Barat, dan konsumen. Penelitian juga menghasilkan 10 program yang berpusat pada IKM makanan ringan Sumatera Barat sebagai core industry.

Kata kunci:  Klaster industri, daya saing, Matriks SWOT, Porter’s Diamond Model

 

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