Recycling Solid Waste of Coconut Oil Industry: A Response Surface-Goal Programming Approach

Dwi Agustin Nuriani Sirodj (Universitas Islam Bandung - Indonesia)
Ivan Gunawan    (Universitas Katolik Widya Mandala Surabaya - Indonesia) Orcid ID

 ) Corresponding Author
Copyright (c) 2020 Dwi Agustin Nuriani Sirodj, Ivan Gunawan
Waste minimization is a key success factor to achieve sustainability, including in the edible oil industry. One type of solid waste produced substantially in this industry is spent bleaching earth (SBE), which comes from a mixture of bleaching earth (BE) and activated carbon (CA) used in the edible oil refining process. SBE that is recycled through a heating process is known as heat regenerated SBE (HRSBE). The process is influenced by two factors as stated in previous studies: temperature and time. In the current study, we report the results of experiments to find the optimal combination of temperature and time in restoring the absorbent quality of SBE by observing four quality parameters: colors (red and yellow), Free Fatty Acid (FFA), and Peroxide Value (PV). The current study uses Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to design the experiments and to find the equations of the relationship between the factors for each response; as well as Goal Programming (GP) to find the most optimal combination of factors in order to achieve aggregated quality targets. The findings show that 3.414 hours of heating at a temperature of 151.64oC allow HRSBE to produce coconut oil in accordance with the expected quality targets.
goal programming; recycle; response surface methodology; spent bleaching earth; edible oil
  Click to Read the Full Text

[1] R. Khedkar and K. Singh, "Food industry waste: A panacea or pollution hazard?, " in Paradigms in Pollution Prevention, T. Jindal, Ed. Cham: Springer, 2018, pp. 35-48.

[2] S. K. Loh, S. James, M. Ngatiman, K. Y. Cheong, Y. M. Choo, and W. S. Lim, “Enhancement of palm oil refinery waste – Spent bleaching earth (SBE) into bio organic fertilizer and their effects on crop biomass growth,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 49, pp. 775–781, Aug. 2013.

[3] S. K. Gouda, P. Awasthy, K. T.S., and S. R., “What does ‘green quality’ really mean?,” The TQM Journal, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 52–69, Jan. 2019.

[4] C. Gimenez, V. Sierra, and J. Rodon, “Sustainable operations: Their impact on the triple bottom line,” International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 149–159, Nov. 2012.

[5] R. Amaranti, D. Irianto, and R. Govindaraju, “Green manufacturing kajian literatur,” in Proc. Seminar dan Konferensi Nasional IDEC 2017, Surakarta, Indonesia, May 8-9, 2017. pp. 171-181.

[6] T. Hur, I. Kim, and R. Yamamoto, “Measurement of green productivity and its improvement,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 673–683, Sep. 2004.

[7] F. Calza, A. Parmentola, and I. Tutore, “An open approach to develop green innovation. A case study analysis,” MERCATI & COMPETITIVITÀ, no. 1, pp. 29–49, Mar. 2017.

[8] A. K. Saxena, K. D. Bhardwaj, and K. K Sinha, “Sustainable growth through green productivity: a case of edible oil industry in India,” International Energy Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 81-91, Jun. 2003.

[9] S. Gautam, N. L. Sharma, and D. K. Gautam, “Green productivity demonstration project and edible oil industry in India,” in National Conference on Recent Trends in Business Management, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Science and Management (MAISM), Jaipur, India, Sept. 11-12, 2009.

[10] O. Nazim, D. Ciftci, and E. Jenab, “Potential Applications of Green Technologies in Olive Oil Industry,” Olive Oil - Constituents, Quality, Health Properties and Bioconversions, Feb. 2012.

[11] N. M. E. Ahmed, H. M. Mustafa, and A. A. Elamin, “Clean production in edible oil (Olympic edible oil factory),” International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science (IJRES), vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 76-79, Nov. 2016.

[12] N. Matondang, “Productivity improvement with green approach to palm oil factory productivity,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 309, p. 012065, Feb. 2018.

[13] K. Rajkumar, M. Muthukumar, and R. Sivakumar, “Novel approach for the treatment and recycle of wastewater from soya edible oil refinery industry—An economic perspective,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 752–758, Aug. 2010.

[14] P. Saranya, K. Ramani, and G. Sekaran, “Biocatalytic approach on the treatment of edible oil refinery wastewater,” RSC Advances, vol. 4, no. 21, p. 10680, 2014.

[15] F. Gunawan, A. Kurniawan, I. Gunawan, Y.-H. Ju, A. Ayucitra, F. E. Soetaredjo, and S. Ismadji, “Synthesis of biodiesel from vegetable oils wastewater sludge by in-situ subcritical methanol transesterification: Process evaluation and optimization,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 69, pp. 28–38, Oct. 2014.

[16] Z. Šereš, N. Maravić, A. Takači, I. Nikolić, D. Šoronja-Simović, A. Jokić, and C. Hodur, “Treatment of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using alumina ceramic membrane: optimization using response surface methodology,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 112, pp. 3132–3137, Jan. 2016.

[17] T. Ahmad, T. Belwal, L. Li, S. Ramola, R. M. Aadil, Abdullah, Y. Xu, and L. Zisheng, “Utilization of wastewater from edible oil industry, turning waste into valuable products: A review,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 99, pp. 21–33, May 2020.

[18] A. Boukerroui, and M. S. Ouali, “Regeneration of a spent bleaching earth and its reuse in the refining of an edible oil,” Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 773-776, May 2000.<773::AID-JCTB287>3.0.CO;2-L.

[19] W. Tsai, H. Chen, M. Hsieh, H. Sun, and S. Chien, “Regeneration of spent bleaching earth by pyrolysis in a rotary furnace,” Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 157–170, Mar. 2002.

[20] E. W. Wambu, G. K. Muthakia, J. K. wa-Thiong’o, and P. M. Shiundu, “Regeneration of spent bleaching earth and its adsorption of copper (II) ions from aqueous solutions,” Applied Clay Science, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 176–180, Oct. 2009.

[21] S.-C. Chew, C.-P. Tan, and K.-L. Nyam, “Optimization of neutralization parameters in chemical refining of kenaf seed oil by response surface methodology,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 95, pp. 742–750, Jan. 2017.

[22] L. Sedaghat Boroujeni, M. Ghavami, Z. Piravi Vanak, and A. Ghasemi Pirbalouti, “Optimization of sunflower oil bleaching parameters: using Response Surface Methodology (RSM),” Food Science and Technology, vol. 40, no. suppl 1, pp. 322–330, Jun. 2020.

[23] S. Sengupta, “Goal programming approach to a type of quality control problem,” Journal of the Operational Research Society, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 207-211, Mar. 1981.

[24] M. Chakraborty and S. Gupta, “Fuzzy goal programming for a type of quality control problem: A case study,” OPSEARCH, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Mar. 2005.

[25] I. Gunawan, I. Vanany, E. Widodo, and I. J. Mulyana, “Improving traceability system in Indonesian coconut oil company,” in Proc. of 2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), Bangkok, Thailand, Dec. 2018.

[26] T. Wang and L. A. Johnson, “Refining high-free fatty acid wheat germ oil,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 71–76, Jan. 2001.

[27] R. B. Kazemzadeh, M. Bashiri, A. C. Atkinson, and R. Noorossana, “A general framework for multiresponse optimization problems based on goal programming,” European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 421–429, Sep. 2008.

[28] A. Shahab, “Aplikasi respon permukaan dan goal programming untuk optimasi morfologi kolam lasan pada pengelasan Inconel 625,” in Prosiding Seminar Nasional Aplikasi Teknologi Informasi (SNATI), Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Jun. 2010.

[29] D. Prasetyaningrum and A. Shahab, “Optimasi komposisi medium dalam pertumbuhan jamur tiram putih (pleurous ostreatus) dengan menggunakan metode respon permukaan dan goal programming,” in Prosiding Seminar Nasional Manajemen Teknologi XVI, Surabaya, Indonesia, Jul. 2012.

[30] I. A. Nugroho and A. Shahab, “Aplikasi metode respon permukaan dan goal programming untuk sifat fisik dan mekanik tablet obat,” in Prosiding Seminar Nasional Manajemen Teknologi XXI, Surabaya, Indonesia, Jul. 2014.

[31] T. Rakić, I. Kasagić-Vujanović, M. Jovanović, B. Jančić-Stojanović, and D. Ivanović, "Comparison of full factorial design, central composite design, and box-behnken design in chromatographic method development for the determination of fluconazole and its impurities", Analytical Letters, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1334-1347, May. 2014.

[32] OStamenković, O.S., Kostić, M.D., Radosavljević, D.B. and Veljković, V.B., “Comparison of box-behnken, face central composite and full factorial designs in optimization of hempseed oil extraction by n-hexane: A case study”. Periodica Polytechnica Chemical Engineering, 62(3), pp.359-367, Jan. 2018.

[33] M. Dutka, M. Ditaranto, and T. Løvås, “Application of a Central Composite Design for the study of NOx emission performance of a low NOx burner,” Energies, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 3606–3627, Apr. 2015.

[34] D. C. Montgomery, Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 7th ed. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

[35] R. H. Myers, D. C. Montgomery, and C. M. Anderson-Cook, Response Surface Methodology: Process and Product Optimization Using Designed Experiments, 3rd ed. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2016.

[36] M. J. Schniederjans, Goal Programming: Methodology and Applications. US: Springer, 1995.

[37] J. Kendall, “Hard and soft constraints in linear programming,” Omega, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 709–715, Dec. 1975.

[38] N. H. Azeman, N. A. Yusof, and A. I. Othman, “Detection of free fatty acid in crude palm oil,” Asian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1569–1573, Feb. 2015.

[39] M. A. Bezerra, R. E. Santelli, E. P. Oliveira, L. S. Villar, and L. A. Escaleira, “Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry,” Talanta, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 965–977, Sep. 2008.

[40] A. Al-Refaie, “Optimizing multiple quality responses in the Taguchi Method using Fuzzy Goal Programming: Modeling and applications,” International Journal of Intelligent Systems, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 651–675, Mar. 2015.

[41] N. Yuvaraj and M. Pradeep Kumar, “Multiresponse optimization of abrasive water jet cutting process parameters using TOPSIS approach,” Materials and Manufacturing Processes, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 882–889, Dec. 2014.

[42] Sivaraos, K. R. Milkey, A. R. Samsudin, A. K. Dubey, and P. Kidd, “Comparison between Taguchi Method and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in modelling CO2 laser machining,” Jordan Journal of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 35-42, Feb. 2014.

StatisticsArticle Metrics

This article has been read : 105 times
PDF file viewed/downloaded : 96 times

This article can be traced from

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.