Leadership Support and Employee Creativity: A Meta-Analysis

Main Article Content

Farid Wajdi



Leaders who have transformational, empowerment, and other positive characteristics positively affect the performance of employee creativity. This study aimed to confirm and clarify the influence of leadership on employee creativity through meta-analysis method. Thirty-two titles of articles with 33 studies used in the analysis, yielding correlation values that support the hypothesis (0.27). In a geographical perspective, there is no difference between the west and the east. This can be seen from the comparable correlation value of each 0.268 and 0.274. However, in a sectoral perspective, manufacturing firms have a more prominent correlation (0.322) than service firms or mixed (0.238 and 0.235). Different motivation factors need to be considered as the link between personal and contextual factors. Therefore, further research should be done to examine the role of different motivations in linking the leadership support on employee creativity.


Download data is not yet available.


[1]     M. E. Porter, “Towards a dynamic theory of strategy,” J. Manage., vol. 12, pp. 95–117, 1991.

[2]     L. D. McLean, “Organizational Culture’s Influence on Creativity and Innovation: A Review of the Literature and Implications for Human Resource Development,” Adv. Dev. Hum. Resour., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 226–246, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422305274528

[3]     J. L. Abraham and D. J. Knight, “Strategic innovation: leveraging creative action for more profitable growth,” Strateg. Leadersh., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1108/10878570110694625

[4]     H. Nystrom, “Innovation and creativity at work: Psychological and organizational strategies,” in Organizational innovation, M. S. West and J. L. Farr, Eds. New York: Wiley, 1990, pp. 143–162.

[5]     D. H. Autor, F. Levy, and R. J. Murnane, “The Skill Content of Recent Technological Change: An Empirical Exploration,” Q. J. Econ., vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 1279–1333, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1162/003355303322552801

[6]     J. Zhou and I. J. Hoever, “Research on workplace creativity: A review and redirection,” Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav., vol. 1, pp. 333–359, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091226

[7]     Wikipedia, “Carlos Ghosn,” www.wikipedia.org, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Ghosn. [Accessed: 01-Nov-2018].

[8]     Harvard Business Review, “2017’s Top-Performing CEO on Getting Product Right,” www.hbr.org, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://hbr.org/ideacast/2017/10/2017s-top-performing-ceo-on-getting-product-right. [Accessed: 01-Nov-2018].

[9]     A. Baiyere, “When Disruptive Innovation is not only about Companies - A Societal Perspective,” in ISPIM Conference Proceedings, 2015, p. 1.

[10]   Kabarbisnis.com, “Pemesanan tiket via online mulai gerogoti penjualan travel agent,” kabarbisnis.com, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.kabarbisnis.com/read/2878101/pemesanan-tiket-via-online-mulai-gerogoti-penjualan-travel-agent. [Accessed: 01-Nov-2018].

[11]   T. M. Amabile, “Motivational Synergy: Toward New Conceptualizations of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in the Workplace,” Hum. Resour. Manag. Rev., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 185–201, 1993. https://doi.org/10.1016/1053-4822(93)90012-S

[12]   T. M. Amabile, Creativity in context. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.

[13]   C. E. Shalley, J. Zhou, and G. R. Oldham, “The Effects of Personal and Contextual Characteristics on Creativity: Where Should We Go from Here?,” J. Manage., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 933–958, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jm.2004.06.007

[14]   A. M. Grant, “Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity,” J. Appl. Psychol., vol. 93, pp. 48–58, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.48

[15]   M. D. Mumford, G. M. Scott, B. Gaddis, and J. M. Strange, “Leading creative people: Orchestrating expertise and relationships,” Leadersh. Q., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 705–750, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(02)00158-3

[16]   J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and M. Jia, “Understanding How Leader Humility Enhances Employee Creativity: The Roles of Perspective Taking and Cognitive Reappraisal,” J. Appl. Behav. Sci., vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 5–31, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886316678907

[17]   J. Zhou and C. E. Shalley, “Research on employee creativity: A critical review and directions for future research,” in Research in personnel and human resource management, J. Martocchio, Ed. Oxford, England: Elsevier, 2003, pp. 165–217.

[18]   G. R. Oldham and A. Cummings, “Employee creativity: Personal and contextual factors at work,” Acad. Manag. J., vol. 39, pp. 607–634, 1996.

[19]   C. E. Shalley and L. L. Gilson, “What leaders need to know: A review of social and contextual factors that can foster or hinder creativity,” Leadersh. Q., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 33–53, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2003.12.004

[20]   S. J. Shin and J. Zhou, “Transformational leadership, conservation, and creativity: Evidence from Korea,” Acad. Manag. J., vol. 46, pp. 703–714, 2003. https://doi.org/10.5465/30040662

[21]   C. E. Shalley and J. E. Perry-Smith, “Effects of social-psychological factors on creative performance: The role of informational and controlling expected evaluation and modeling experience,” Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 1–22, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.2000.2918

[22]   J. Cho and F. Dansereau, “Are transformational leaders fair? A multi-level study of transformational leadership, justice perceptions, and organizational citizenship behaviors,” Leadersh. Q., vol. 21, pp. 409–421, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.03.006

[23]   X. Zhang and K. M. Bartol, “Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement,” Acad. Manag. J., vol. 53, pp. 107–128, 2010. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.48037118

[24]   N. Madjar, “Emotional and informational support from different sources and employee creativity,” J. Occup. Organ. Psychol., pp. 83–100, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317907X202464

[25]   J. Jyoti and M. Dev, “The impact of transformational leadership on employee creativity: the role of learning orientation,” J. Asia Bus. Stud., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 78–98, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1108/JABS-03-2014-0022

[26]   O. Janssen, E. van de Vliert, and M. West, “The bright and dark sides of individual and group innovation: a Special Issue introduction,” J. Organ. Behav., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 129–145, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.242

[27]   X. Zhang and K. Bartol M., “Linking Empowering Leadership and Employee Creativity : the Influence of Psychological Empowerment , Intrinsic Motivation , and Creative Process Engagement,” Acad. Manag. J., vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 107–128, 2010. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.48037118

[28]   P. Tierney, S. M. Farmer, and G. B. Graen, “An Examination of Leadership and Employee Creativity: The Relevance of Traits and Relationships,” Pers. Psychol., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 591–620, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1999.tb00173.x

[29]   L. Gumusluoglu and A. Ilsev, “Transformational leadership, creativity, and organizational innovation,” J. Bus. Res., vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 461–473, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.07.032

[30]   D. I. Jung, “Transformational and transactional leadership and their effects on creativity in groups,” Creat. Res. J., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 185–195, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326934CRJ1302_6

[31]   J. E. Hunter and F. L. Schmidt, “Dichotomization of continuous variables: The implications for meta-analysis,” J. Appl. Psychol., vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 334–349, 1990. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.3.334

[32]   J. Chang, X. Bai, and J. J. Li, “The influence of leadership on product and process innovations in China: The contingent role of knowledge acquisition capability,” Ind. Mark. Manag., vol. 50, pp. 18–29, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2015.04.014

[33]   C.-A. Chen and C.-W. Hsieh, “Knowledge sharing motivation in the public sector: the role of public service motivation,” Int. Rev. Adm. Sci., no. in Press, p. n/a, 2015.

[34]   H. H. M. Tse and W. C. K. Chiu, “Transformational leadership and job performance: A social identity perspective,” J. Bus. Res., vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 2827–2835, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.07.018

[35]   X. H. Wang, T. Y. Kim, and D. R. Lee, “Cognitive diversity and team creativity: Effects of team intrinsic motivation and transformational leadership,” J. Bus. Res., vol. 69, no. 9, pp. 3231–3239, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.02.026

[36]   N. K. Jaiswal and R. L. Dhar, “Transformational leadership, innovation climate, creative self-efficacy and employee creativity: A multilevel study,” Int. J. Hosp. Manag., vol. 51, pp. 30–41, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2015.07.002

[37]   J. H. Chang and C. C. Teng, “Intrinsic or extrinsic motivations for hospitality employees’ creativity: The moderating role of organization-level regulatory focus,” Int. J. Hosp. Manag., vol. 60, pp. 133–141, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2016.10.003

[38]   L. Huang, D. V. Krasikova, and D. Liu, “I can do it, so can you: The role of leader creative self-efficacy in facilitating follower creativity,” Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., vol. 132, pp. 49–62, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2015.12.002

[39]   C. Wu, J. S. McMullen, M. J. Neubert, and X. Yi, “The influence of leader regulatory focus on employee creativity,” J. Bus. Ventur., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 587–602, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2007.09.005

[40]   P. Patanakul, J. K. Pinto, and M. B. Pinto, “Motivation to perform in a multiple-project environment: The impact of autonomy, support, goal clarity, and opportunities for learning,” J. Eng. Technol. Manag. - JET-M, vol. 39, pp. 65–80, 2016.

[41]   A. Y. Zhang, A. S. Tsui, and D. X. Wang, “Leadership behaviors and group creativity in Chinese organizations: The role of group processes,” Leadersh. Q., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 851–862, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.07.007

[42]   L. Y. Sun, Z. Zhang, J. Qi, and Z. X. Chen, “Empowerment and creativity: A cross-level investigation,” Leadersh. Q., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 55–65, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.11.005

[43]   N. Özarallı, “Linking Empowering Leader to Creativity: The Moderating Role of Psychological (Felt) Empowerment,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 181, pp. 366–376, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.899

[44]   X. Zhang and J. Zhou, “Empowering leadership, uncertainty avoidance, trust, and employee creativity: Interaction effects and a mediating mechanism,” Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 150–164, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2014.02.002

[45]   G. Koseoglu, Y. Liu, and C. E. Shalley, “Working with creative leaders: Exploring the relationship between supervisors’ and subordinates’ creativity,” Leadersh. Q., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 798–811, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2017.03.002

[46]   S. R. McMahon and C. M. Ford, “Heuristic Transfer in the Relationship between Leadership and Employee Creativity,” J. Leadersh. Organ. Stud., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 69–83, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051812465894

[47]   Peng Wang and J. C. Rode, “Transformational leadership and follower creativity: The moderating effects of identification with leader and organizational climate,” Hum. Relations, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 1105–1128, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726709354132

[48]   Peng Wang and Weichun Zhu, “Mediating Role of Creative Identity in the Influence of Transformational Leadership on Creativity: Is There a Multilevel Effect?,” J. Leadersh. Organ. Stud., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 25–39, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051810368549

[49]   A. H. Y. Hon and W. W. H. Chan, “Team Creative Performance,” Cornell Hosp. Q., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 199–210, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965512455859

[50]   H. Yi, P. Hao, B. Yang, and W. Liu, “How Leaders’ Transparent Behavior Influences Employee Creativity: The Mediating Roles of Psychological Safety and Ability to Focus Attention,” J. Leadersh. Organ. Stud., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 335–344, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051816670306

[51]   V. Gupta and S. Singh, “Leadership and Creative Performance Behaviors in R&D Laboratories,” J. Leadersh. Organ. Stud., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 21–36, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051813517002

[52]   S. Amundsen and Ø. L. Martinsen, “Linking Empowering Leadership to Job Satisfaction, Work Effort, and Creativity,” J. Leadersh. Organ. Stud., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 304–323, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051814565819

[53]   Y. Gong, J. C. Huang, and J. L. Farh, “Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity: The mediating role of employee creative self-efficacy,” Acad. Manag. J., vol. 52, pp. 765–778, 2009. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2009.43670890

[54]   K. Jaskyte and A. Kisieliene, “Determinants of Employee Creativity: A Survey of Lithuanian Nonprofit Organizations,” Voluntas, vol. 17, pp. 133–141, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-006-9008-2

[55]   S. M. Farmer, P. Tierney, and K. Kung-McIntyre, “Employee Creativity in Taiwan: An Application of Role Identity Theory,” Acad. Manag. J., vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 618–630, 2003.

[56]   L. Van Dyne, K. A. Jehn, and A. Cummings, “Differential effects of strain on two forms of work performance: individual employee sales and creativity,” J. Organ. Behav., vol. 23, pp. 57–74, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.127

[57]   A. C. Wang and B. S. Cheng, “When does benevolent leadership lead to creativity? The moderating role of creative role identity and job autonomy,” J. Organ. Behav., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 106–121, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.634

[58]   R. Qu, O. Janssen, and K. Shi, “Transformational leadership and follower creativity: The mediating role of follower relational identification and the moderating role of leader creativity expectations,” Leadersh. Q., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 286–299, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.12.004

[59]   J. Cohen, “Statistical power analysis,” Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 98–101, 1992. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.ep10768783

[60]   T. M. Amabile, “The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., vol. 45, pp. 357–376, 1983. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.2.357

[61]   E. L. Deci, R. M. Ryan, M. Gagné, D. R. Leone, J. Usunov, and B. P. Kornazheva, “Need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in the work organizations of a former eastern bloc country: A cross-cultural study of self-determination,” Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 930–942, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167201278002

[62]   A. Paramitha and N. Indarti, “Impact of the Environment Support on Creativity: Assessing the Mediating Role of Intrinsic Motivation,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 115, no. Iicies 2013, pp. 102–114, 2014.

[63]   P. W. Dorfman, J. P. Howell, S. Hibino, J. K. Lee, U. Tate, and A. Bautista, “Leadership in Western and Asian countries: Commonalities and differences in effective leadership processes across cultures,” Leadersh. Q., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 233–274, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(97)90003-5

[64]   H. R. Markus and S. Kitayama, “Culture and the self: examination of leadership and employee creativity: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation,” Psychol. Rev., vol. 98, pp. 224–253, 1991. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224

[65]   A. Grinstein, “The effect of market orientation and its components on innovation consequences: a meta-analysis,” J. Acad. Mark. Sci., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 166–173, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-007-0053-1

[66]   D. S. DeRue, J. D. Nahrgang, N. Wellman, and S. E. Humphrey, “Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: An integration and meta-analytic test of their relative validity,” Pers. Psychol., vol. 64, pp. 7–52, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01201.x